Background and aims: Although previous studies suggest that the traditional Japanese dietary pattern is independently associated with a low cardiovascular disease mortality risk, the mechanisms mediating or linking this association are not well understood. Adiponectin has emerged as a valuable biomarker for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of present study was to evaluate whether dietary patterns are associated with serum adiponectin concentration in Japanese adult men. Methods and results: We designed a cross-sectional study of 702 men (median [interquartile range] age, 44.5 [37.8-54.2] years) living in Japan. Dietary consumption was assessed via a 75-item food frequency questionnaire. We used principal-components analysis to derive 3 major dietary patterns-" Japanese" , " sweets-fruits" and, " Izakaya (Japanese Pub)" - from 39 food groups. Serum adiponectin concentration was measured by using a specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After adjustment for potential confounders, the geometric mean (95% confidence interval) for log-transformed adiponectin concentration associated with " Japanese" dietary pattern factor score tertiles were 5.24 (4.84-5.69) for the lowest tertile, 5.82 (5.39-6.29) for the middle tertile, and 5.95 (5.47-6.46) for the highest tertile (P for trend <0.01). In contrast, a significant inverse association was found between the " Izakaya" pattern factor score tertiles and adiponectin concentration (P for trend = 0.03). Conclusions: Greater adherence to the " Japanese" dietary pattern was independently associated to a higher serum adiponectin concentration in Japanese adult men. This finding supports the hypothesis that the traditional Japanese diet may have a potentially beneficial effect on adiponectin concentrations. A long-term prospective study or randomized trials are required to clarify this causality.
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