To overcome various concerns due to scaling-down device size in future large-scale integration (LSI), it is indispensable to introduce a new concept of heterogeneous three-dimensional (3D) integration in which various kinds of device chips with different sizes, devices, and materials are vertically stacked. To achieve such heterogeneous 3D integration, the key technology of self-assembly and electrostatic (SAE) bonding has been developed. The heterogeneous 3D integration technology with the SAE bonding method has enabled 3D heterogeneous stacking of different types of chips such as the compound semiconductor device chip, photonic device chip, and spintronic device chip on complementary metal oxide semiconductor chips. A 3D image sensor with extremely fast processing speed and a 3D microprocessor with a self-test and self-repair function for future automatic driving vehicles are typical examples of heterogeneous 3D LSIs which we fabricated by the SAE bonding method.
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