Susceptibility to a range of antimicrobial agents was determined among isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Haemophilus influenzae collected in 12 centers throughout Japan during years 1-5 (the respiratory seasons of 1999-2004) of the longitudinal Prospective Resistant Organism Tracking and Epidemiology for the Ketolide Telithromycin study. The most frequent source of isolates of S. pneumoniae was from patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (25.3%). Reduced susceptibility to penicillin or erythromycin resistance was common among S. pneumoniae isolates (30.9-44.5% and 77.2-81.9%, respectively). The macrolide MIC50 for S. pneumoniae was ≥128 μg/ml (azithromycin and erythromycin) and ≥64 μg/ml (clarithromycin). The erm(B) genotype accounted for the most erythromycin-resistant isolates in each study year. H. influenzae isolates were most commonly derived from patients with CAP (26.2%). The proportion of H. influenzae isolates that were β-lactamase positive ranged between 4.3% and 9.7%. The prevalence of β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant isolates increased from 0.4% to 2.6% between years 1 and 4 then to 19.7% in year 5. S. pyogenes isolates were highly susceptible to most antimicrobial agents except macrolides and tetracycline. Telithromycin was highly active against all three pathogens examined throughout the study.
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