Purpose: To determine whether anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) can be used to predict post-trabeculectomy bleb outcomes. Materials and methods: We divided 58 eyes of 47 trabeculectomy patients into success or failure groups based on their status at 12 months after surgery. We then compared various AS-OCT measurement parameters between the two groups at 1 and 2 weeks and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. We also analyzed the early post-trabeculectomy bleb parameters with multiple logistic regression, stepwise multiple regression, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, to evaluate the power of these parameters to predict long-term outcomes. Results: Intraocular pressure 3 or more months after trabeculectomy was significantly lower in the success group than the failure group (all: P < 0.0016). Cleft volume was significantly higher 6 or more months after trabeculectomy in the success group than the failure group (P = 0.0027 and <0.0016). Reflectivity of the bleb wall was significantly higher in the failure group than the success group at 2 weeks and all later time points (all: P < 0.0016). Reflectivity of the bleb wall at 2 weeks after trabeculectomy was a risk factor for failure, with an odds ratio (OR) for failure of 2.48 (95% confidence interval, 1.31–4.68, increasing per 10 AU). The area under the ROC curve for reflectivity of the bleb wall at 2 weeks after trabeculectomy was 0.775 when the cutoff value was set at 122.8, with sensitivity, specificity, and OR of 78.3%, 80.0%, and 14.4, respectively. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that reflectivity of the bleb wall at 2 weeks was an independent factor indicating postoperative bleb survival period (β = −0.39, P = 0.007). Conclusions: Reflectivity of the bleb wall, measured by AS-OCT, may be an early post-trabeculectomy predictor of bleb outcome.
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