Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is recognized as the most cost-effective process for nitrogen removal from wastewater. In this study, effects of polyethylene plastics, nonwoven fabric, granular activated carbon (GAC) and polyurethane sponge as buoyant carriers were evaluated in lab-scale moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs). The overall performance of MBBRs with four types of carriers from priority to inferiority was noticed as, GAC, nonwoven fabrics, polyurethane sponge and polyethylene plastics under the same packing ratio of 20 v% and an average carrier size of 4 × 4 × 4 mm. The hydrophobic surface of GAC could selectively adsorb hydrophobic protein and favor anammox bacteria attachment, which contributed to achieving a total nitrogen removal rate of 0.40 kg-N/(m3·d) in 60 days. In conclusion, our results provide compelling evidence for achieving effective anammox process in an MBBR with GAC carriers and would benefit towards accomplishing a stable partial nitritation-anammox process in the future.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal