We hypothesized that epithelial cells of the remnant small intestine display "colonic" phenotype after total proctocolectomy. The aims of the present study were to identify preferentially expressed molecules in the colon or in the small intestine and to evaluate mRNA levels of those in the ileal pouch. Differential gene expression was investigated between the small intestine and the colon by using cDNA microarray and was confirmed by Northern blotting. Expression of three colonic mRNAs (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 2, deleted malignant brain tumors 1, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1) and one "small intestinal" (microsomal triglyceride transfer protein) mRNA were compared between the control and the ileal pouch mucosae by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Seventy-four clones were differentially expressed with more than a threefold difference. Differential expression was confirmed in all mRNAs examined, including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 2 and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. The mucosal expression of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 mRNA in the ileal pouch was enhanced in humans. The remnant ileum develops some, but not all, colonic phenotype after total proctocolectomy. Comparative study of epithelial gene expression between the small intestine and the colon enables us to analyze mechanisms of intestinal adaptation after total proctocolectomy.
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