A 74-year-old woman who exhibited drowsiness was referred to our hospital. Enhanced head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple ring-enhancing lesions and lesions showing partial mild hemorrhaging. The patient gradually progressed to a comatose condition with notable brain deterioration of unknown cause on follow-up MRI. On day nine, the patient inexplicably died, although brain herniation was suspected. Autopsy and histopathology revealed numerous amoebic trophozoites in the perivascular spaces and within the necrotic tissue. Brain immunostaining tested positive for Balamuthia mandrillaris. Infection due to free-living amoeba is rare in Japan; however, it may increase in the near future due to unknown reasons.
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