We determined the effects of wearing an above-knee compression garment (CG) on knee joint position sense. Healthy young adults (n = 24, age = 27.46 ± 4.65 years) performed a passive knee position-matching task on an isokinetic dynamometer with each leg separately. We determined the magnitude of compression by measuring anatomical thigh cross sectional area (CSA) in standing using magnetic resonance imaging. Wearing the CG compressed CSA by 2% (t = 2.91, p = 0.010, Cohen’s d = 0.68). Repeated measures ANOVA (rANOVA) with three repetition factors (condition: CG, no CG; leg: right dominant, left non-dominant; and target angles: 30, 45, 60) revealed an effect of angles (p < 0.001), where the matching of knee joint position was more accurate at 60 compared to 30 and 45 (p < 0.001). However, CG did not reduce passive joint position sense errors. In fact, joint position error was less without CG (p = 0.014). In conclusion, while CG does compress the thigh it does not afford the purported benefits for proprioception as measured by a target-matching task in the present study.
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