An 11q23 abnormality presents in approximately 5% of adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is associated with adverse outcomes even after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). To evaluate the outcomes and prognostic factors following allo-HCT for adult AML with 11q23 abnormality, we retrospectively analyzed the Japanese registration data of 322 adult AML patients with 11q23 abnormality who had received allo-HCT between 1990 and 2014. In total, the disease status at HCT was first complete remission (CR1) in 159 (49%) patients. The probability of overall survival and the cumulative incidence of relapse at 3 years were 44 and 44%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, disease status beyond CR1 at the time of HCT was significantly associated with a higher overall mortality and relapse. The 11q23 fusion partner did not have a significant impact on survival. We also evaluated the prognostic value of minimal residual disease (MRD) status at HCT on transplant outcomes among hematological CR patients. MRD status at HCT was the significant prognostic indicator for hematological relapse and survival. These data suggested that allo-HCT offered a curative option for adult AML with 11q23 abnormality. Pretransplant MRD status was the significant prognostic indicator for relapse and survival in CR patients.
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