Luteolin is a flavonoid present in plants in the form of aglycone or glucosides. In this study, luteolin glucosides (i.e., luteolin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-[2-(β-d-apiosyl)-β-d-glucoside], and luteolin-7-O-[2-(β-d-apiosyl)-6-malonyl-β-d-glucoside]) prepared from green pepper leaves as well as luteolin aglycone were orally administered to rats. Regardless of the administered luteolin form, luteolin glucuronides were mainly detected from plasma and organs. Subsequently, luteolin aglycone, the most absorbed form of luteolin in rats, was orally administered to humans. As a result, luteolin-3′-O-sulfate was mainly identified from plasma, suggesting that not only luteolin form but also animal species affect the absorption and metabolism of luteolin. When LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells were treated with luteolin glucuronides and luteolin sulfate (the characteristic metabolites identified from rats and humans, respectively), the different luteolin conjugates were metabolized in different ways, suggesting that such difference in metabolism results in their difference in anti-inflammatory effects.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- 化学 (全般)