Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major cause of dementia in the elderly with no effective treatment. Accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in the brain is a pathological hallmark of AD and is believed to be a central disease-causing and disease-promoting event. In a previous study, we showed that deletion of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), a primary inhibitor of tissue type and urokinase type plasminogen activators (tPA and uPA), significantly reduced brain Aβ load in APP/PS1 mice, an animal model of familial AD. In this study, we further show that oral administration of TM5275, a small molecule inhibitor of PAI-1, for a period of 6 weeks, inhibits the activity of PAI-1 and increases the activities of tPA and uPA as well as plasmin, which is associated with a reduction of Aβ load in the hippocampus and cortex and improvement of learning/memory function in APP/PS1 mice. Protein abundance of low density lipoprotein related protein-1 (LRP-1), a multi ligand endocytotic receptor involved in transporting Aβ out of the brain, as well as plasma Aβ 42 are increased, whereas the expression and processing of full-length amyloid-β protein precursor is not affected by TM5275 treatment in APP/PS1 mice. In vitro studies further show that PAI-1 increases, whereas TM5275 reduces, Aβ 40 level in the culture medium of SHSY5Y-APP neuroblastoma cells. Collectively, our data suggest that TM5275 improves memory function of APP/PS1 mice, probably by reducing brain Aβ accumulation through increasing plasmin-mediated degradation and LRP-1-mediated efflux of Aβ in the brain.
ASJC Scopus subject areas