Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is a degenerative, intractable, inflammatory myopathy with an immune pathomechanism. We report on a case of a 44-year-old Japanese man who began developing progressive muscle weakness at age 40. Rheumatoid arthritis symptoms manifested at 43 with strongly positive anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies. Along with typical sIBM pathology, a muscle biopsy revealed dramatic inflammation with prominent perivascular B-cell infiltration forming ectopic lymphoid follicle-like structures (ELFLSs). Exome sequencing identified no causative variants of hereditary myopathy or immune disorders. A combination of immunotherapy slowed the progression of the muscular symptoms. This unusual form of sIBM, including earlier age at onset, a partial response to immunotherapy, and a histopathology presenting B-cell infiltrate with ectopic lymphoid follicle-like structures, indicates a possible association of rheumatoid arthritis and heterogeneity with the autoimmune involvement of sIBM. We review the clinical and pathological features of patients with rheumatoid arthritis associated sIBM in the literature.
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