Background: Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD), a hypomyelinating leukodystrophy, and the related but less severe allelic spastic paraplegia 2 (SPG2) are caused by mutations in the proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1) gene. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is pivotal for diagnosing these disorders. The severity of PMD/SPG2 varies, and for a milder form of PMD, there have been some reports of near-normal findings in T1-weighted images but abnormal findings in T2-weighted images. Patient: We report the case of a 5-year-old boy diagnosed with a milder form of PMD caused by a novel PLP1 mutation in exon 3: c.300delC (p.I100IfsX13). He had delayed development from several months of age and was able to walk with support at 19. months in spite of the spasticity in his lower extremities. Hypomyelination was noted at 12. months by brain MRI. Motor nerve conduction studies showed decreased velocities with reduced amplitudes. Follow-up MRI at 1-year intervals from 18. months until 55. months of age showed gradual myelination progress. Discussion: The single nucleotide deletion identified in this patient can cause a frameshift and premature termination of PLP1. Via the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay mechanism of this mutation will result in loss-of-function, leading to a milder form of PMD. The present case is compatible with previously reported cases of milder form of PMD. We incidentally identified progressive myelination in this patient by T1-weighted images obtained by serial MRI. This finding adds to our understanding of the pathological stages of a milder form of PMD.
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