Phosphorus recovery from wastewater is an important approach for sustainable phosphorus use. In this work, a process combining anammox and hydroxyapatite (HAP) precipitation in an expanded bed reactor for simultaneous nitrogen removal and phosphorus recovery was developed by applying specific Ca/P ratio and pH control. A high phosphorus removal rate (0.14 ± 0.01 kg-P/m3/d) was obtained while a stable nitrogen removal efficiency (87.4 ± 2.9%) maintained with an effluent recirculation system applied. Average 13.4% phosphorus (30.7% in P2O5) accumulation in the dry sludge and a Ca/P ratio very close to HAP was observed by quantitative elemental analysis. In this work, different analysis revealed the two layers structure with anammox biofilm attached to inorganic core of the granules. Different spectral analysis determined the major phase of the inorganic content as hydroxyapatite. With proper Ca/P ratio and pH control, anammox expanded bed reactor was transformed into an efficient process to simultaneously remove nitrogen and recover phosphorus.
ASJC Scopus subject areas