In typical super-resolution microscopy, high temporal resolution is sacrificed to achieve a spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit. In this study, we have developed a new structured illumination microscopy (SIM) system using two Pockels cells, achieving a temporal resolution of 1 ms. The introduction of the two Pockels cells enables control of the phases of the illumination pattern along the X- A nd Y-axes in microseconds. We obtained five images consecutively with different illumination patterns and reconstructed a super-resolution image. We observed fluorescent nanoparticles in living cells for 8 s with super resolution and a frame rate of 1,000 fps.
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