Resonant 1D microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) optical scanners actuated by piezoelectric unimorph actuators with a Nb-doped lead zirconate titanate (PNZT) thin film were developed for endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) application. The MEMS scanners were designed as the resonance frequency was less than 125 Hz to obtain enough pixels per frame in OCT images. The device size was within 3.4 mm × 2.5 mm, which is compact enough to be installed in a side-imaging probe with 4 mm inner diameter. The fabrication process started with a silicon-on-insulator wafer, followed by PNZT deposition by the Rf sputtering and Si bulk micromachining process. The fabricated MEMS scanners showed maximum optical scan angles of 146° at 90 Hz, 148° at 124 Hz, 162° at 180 Hz, and 152° at 394 Hz at resonance in atmospheric pressure. Such wide scan angles were obtained by a drive voltage below 1.3 V pp, ensuring intrinsic safety in in vivo uses. The scanner with the unpoled PNZT film showed three times as large a scan angle as that with a poled PZT films. A swept-source OCT system was constructed using the fabricated MEMS scanner, and cross-sectional images of a fingertip with image widths of 4.6 and 2.3 mm were acquired. In addition, a PNZT-based angle sensor was studied for feedback operation.
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