We carry out general relativistic ray-tracing radiative-transfer calculations to study whether a localized emission from plasma rings created at the stagnation surface in the jet funnel, to which we refer as stagnation rings, can explain the ring image of M87∗ observed by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) 2017. The resultant images consist of the direct image of the stagnation rings and the ring images formed via the strong deflection by the black hole (BH) gravity, to which we refer as quasi photon-ring. For the model with the BH spin a ∗ = 0.99, the direct image of the counter-jet and quasi photon-ring are almost coincident to the photon ring with diameter ∼ 40 μas, while the approaching jet shows the small ring image inside them. The synthetic observation image assumes that the EHT2017 array is consistent with that observed in M87∗, because the array is a bit sparse to detect the inner ring image. This indicates that the ring image in M87∗ may contain the important feature of the jet bases in addition to the photon ring. We find that forthcoming EHT observations can resolve the stagnation ring image and may enable us to explore the plasma-injection mechanism in the jet funnel.
ASJC Scopus subject areas