In Southeast Asia, economic and population growth are expected in the near future. Rapid change is anticipated especially in the Lao PDR. Concern has been expressed that population growth will lead to an increased demand for food and economic growth to changes in the use of land. For food production to keep pace with the growth of population, it is very important to understand decision-making in rice paddy cultivation in urbanizing areas; for this reason, this study with the SEM model was conducted. The original data were collected by a questionnaire survey in some Lao villages; the survey included questions on various conditions, such as the availability of water in the dry season (irrigation), the access to a city, and job opportunities other than farming. The findings of the study demonstrate that the planting of a second rice crop was related to such factors as the productivity of rain-fed rice and cash crops and, most importantly, job opportunities other than farming.
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