Fulminant type 1 diabetes is characterized by remarkably rapid and complete β-cell destruction. The established diagnostic criteria include the occurrence of diabetic ketosis soon after the onset of hyperglycemic symptoms, elevated plasma glucose with relatively low HbA1c at the first visit, and extremely low C-peptide. Serum C-peptide levels remain extremely low over a prolonged period. A 26-year-old-man with diabetic ketosis was admitted to our hospital. His relatively low HbA1c (7.6%), despite marked hyperglycemia (593 mg/dL) with marked ketosis, indicated abrupt onset. Islet-related autoantibodies were all negative. His data at onset, including extremely low serum C-peptide (0.11 ng/mL), fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for fulminant type 1 diabetes. However, his fasting serum C-peptide levels subsequently showed substantial recovery. While fasting C-peptide stayed below 0.30 ng/mL during the first two months post onset, the levels gradually increased and thereafter fluctuated between 0.60 ng/mL and 0.90 ng/mL until 24 months post onset. By means of multiple daily insulin injection therapy, his glycemic control has been well maintained (HbA1c approximately 6.0%), with relatively small glycemic fluctuations evaluated by continuous glucose monitoring. This clinical course suggests that, despite the abrupt diabetes onset with extremely low C-peptide levels, substantial numbers of β-cells had been spared destruction and their function later showed gradual recovery. Diabetes has come to be considered a much more heterogeneous disease than the present subdivisions suggest. This case does not fit into the existing concepts of either fulminant type 1 or ketosis-prone diabetes, thereby further highlighting the heterogeneity of idiopathic type 1 diabetes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism