A Card-Minimal Three-Input AND Protocol Using Two Shuffles

Raimu Isuzugawa, Kodai Toyoda, Yu Sasaki, Daiki Miyahara, Takaaki Mizuki

研究成果: Conference contribution


Card-based cryptography typically uses a physical deck comprising black and red cards to perform secure computations, where a one-bit value is encoded using a pair of cards with different colors such that the order of black to red represents 0 and red to black represents 1. One of the most fundamental classes of card-based protocols is the class of “card-minimal” n-input AND protocols, which require 2n face-down cards as input to securely evaluate the AND value after applying a number of shuffles; here, the 2n cards are minimally required to describe an n-bit input. The best n-input AND protocols currently known use two shuffles for n= 2, five shuffles for n= 3, and n+ 1 shuffles for n> 3. These upper bounds on the numbers of shuffles have not been improved for several years. In this work, we present a better upper bound for the n= 3 case by designing a new card-minimal three-input AND protocol using only two shuffles. Therefore, our proposed protocol reduces the number of required shuffles from five to two; we believe that this is a significant improvement.

ホスト出版物のタイトルComputing and Combinatorics - 27th International Conference, COCOON 2021, Proceedings
編集者Chi-Yeh Chen, Wing-Kai Hon, Ling-Ju Hung, Chia-Wei Lee
出版社Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
出版ステータスPublished - 2021
イベント27th International Conference on Computing and Combinatorics, COCOON 2021 - Tainan, Taiwan, Province of China
継続期間: 2021 10 242021 10 26


名前Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
13025 LNCS


Conference27th International Conference on Computing and Combinatorics, COCOON 2021
国/地域Taiwan, Province of China

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 理論的コンピュータサイエンス
  • コンピュータ サイエンス(全般)


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