High-temperature electrochemistry is widely used in many fields. However, real-time observations and an in-depth understanding of the inside evolution of this system from an experimental perspective remain limited because of harsh reaction conditions and multiphysics fields. Here, we tackled this challenge with a high-temperature electrolysis facility developed in-house. This facility permits in situ x-ray computer microtomography (μ-CT) for nondestructive and quantitative three-dimensional (3D) imaging. In an electrorefining system, the μ-CT probed the dynamic evolution of 3D morphology and components of electrodes (4D). Subsequently, this 4D process was visually presented via reconstructed images. The results monitor the efficiency of the process, explore the dynamic mechanisms, and even offer real-time optimization. This 4D analysis platform is notable for in-depth combinations of traditional electrochemistry with digital twin technologies owing to its multiscale visualization and high efficiency of data extraction.
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