Yolk sac tumor of the ovary: A retrospective multicenter study of 33 Japanese women by Tohoku gynecologic cancer unit (TGCU)

Takanobu Kojimahara, Kenji Nakahara, Tadao Takano, Nobuo Yaegashi, Hiroshi Nishiyama, Keiya Fujimori, Naoki Sato, Yukihiro Terada, Toru Tase, Yoshihito Yokoyama, Hideki Mizunuma, Tadahiro Shoji, Toru Sugiyama, Hirohisa Kurachi

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15 Citations (Scopus)


Yolk sac tumor (YST) of the ovary is a rare germ cell tumor comprising about 1% of all ovarian malignancies. YST usually occurs as a rapidly growing unilateral tumor in young women. With the introduction of cisplatin, YST has been changed from a fatal tumor to a curable tumor. The standard treatment of YST consists of fertility-preserving surgery and 3 or 4 courses of adjuvant combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP). However, the long-term prognosis of BEP-treated YST patients has not been well studied. We therefore conducted a retrospective multicenter study to investigate the prognostic factors of 33 YST patients, including 25 patients treated with BEP. The median age at initial treatment was 20 years (range 10-53). There were 15 patients (at stage I), one (stage II), 16 (stage III), and one (stage IV). Nominal and grouped numerical values were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. All patients had unilateral tumor, with right-side predominance (23 patients; P = 0.02). Eighteen patients had pure YST, 13 had mixed germ cell tumor with YST component, and other 2 patients were not specified. Twenty-eight patients received fertility-preserving surgery. Twenty-seven patients had optimal surgery with less than 1 cm residual tumor diameter. Median number of chemotherapy courses was 5. Median follow-up period was 49 months. The cumulative 5-year survival rate was 87%. Univariate analysis revealed the following signifcant prognostic factors (P < 0.05): stage, tumor diameter, and residual tumor. Extensive debulking surgery to minimize residual tumor would improve the prognosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)211-217
Number of pages7
JournalTohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • Bleomycin
  • Cisplatin
  • Etoposide
  • Retrospective study
  • Yolk sac tumor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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