Wearable technologies for functional whole brain imaging in freely moving animals would advance our understanding of cognitive processing and adaptive behavior. Fluorescence imaging can visualize the activity of individual neurons in real time, but conventional microscopes have limited sample coverage in both the width and depth of view. Here we developed a novel head-mounted laser camera (HLC) with macro and deep-focus lenses that enable fluorescence imaging at cellular resolution for comprehensive imaging in mice expressing a layer- and cell type-specific calcium probe. We visualized orientation selectivity in individual excitatory neurons across the whole visual cortex of one hemisphere, and cell assembly expressing the premotor activity that precedes voluntary movement across the motor cortex of both hemispheres. Including options for multiplex and wireless interfaces, our wearable, wide- and deep-imaging HLC technology could enable simple and economical mapping of neuronal populations underlying cognition and behavior.
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