Volcano inflation prior to an eruption: Numerical simulations based on a 1-D magma flow model in an open conduit

Ryohei Kawaguchi, Takeshi Nishimura, Haruo Sato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


We numerically simulate volcanic inflation caused by magma ascent in a shallow conduit at volcanoes which repeatedly erupt, in order to understand the effect of volatile behavior on magma from geodetic data. Considering magma in which the relative velocities between melt and gas bubbles are negligible, we model magma flow in a one-dimensional open conduit with diffusive gas bubble growth. We calculate the ground displacements and tilts caused by spatio-temporal changes of magma pressure in the conduit. Our simulations show that magma without volatiles causes decelerated changes in volcanic inflation. Magma with gas bubble growth inflates the volcano with a constant, or accelerated, rate. Temporal changes of volcanic deformation are also affected by the magma pressure at the bottom of the conduit. When the pressure is small, the displacements and tilts increase in proportion to the 1.5th power of time. This time rate is similar to that predicted from a basic gas bubble growth model. When the pressure equals the lithostatic pressure, the effects of gas bubble growth relatively decrease and the displacements and tilts increase linearly with time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1477-1489
Number of pages13
Journalearth, planets and space
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • 1-d conduit flow model
  • Bubble growth
  • Temporal change
  • Volcano inflation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology
  • Space and Planetary Science


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