Surface emitting laser operation and optical switching operation are demonstrated in vertical-to-surface transmission electrophotonic devices using pnpn structures and vertical cavities. Threshold current density as low as 1.4 kA cm-2 for laser operation and optical switching energy as low as 2.2 pJ for optical switching operation are achieved. It is found that optical switching energy can be lowered by multireflections in the vertical cavity. Growth rate calibration and series resistance in the distributed Bragg reflector mirrors are examined for device fabrication.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering