With the focus primarily on the laser-mode VSTEP (Vertical to Surface Transmission Electro-Photonic device) with high-intensity light output and narrow optical beam divergence, design features such as threshold gain and optical absorptivity, device fabrication, and characteristics are reported. A 20 μm-square VSTEP with an optimized vertical-cavity structure demonstrates a low optical switching energy of 2.2 pJ together with a low threshold current. In order to lower the series resistance, and to improve electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiency ηT,a double mesa structure VSTEP is fabricated. The whole mesa is covered with Au to utilize the threshold reduction by photon recycling. As a result, ηT has been improved to 11% at 1 mW light output. A new optically self-routing switch has been demonstrated by using the laser-mode VSTEPs. The optical data rate is 1.6 Gbps.
|Title of host publication||NEC Research and Development|
|Number of pages||14|
|Publication status||Published - 1992 Jul 1|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering