Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft X-ray flat-field spectrograph

Masato Koike, Takeshi Namioka, Eric Gullikson, Yoshihisa Harada, Sadayuki Ishikawa, Takashi Imazono, Stanley Mrowka, Noboru Miyata, Mihiro Yanagihara, James H. Underwood, Kazuo Sano, Tokuo Ogiwara, Osamu Yoda, Shiro Nagai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


An aspheric wave-front recording system was designed to produce a holographic grating for use in a standard soft X-ray flat-field spectrograph interchangeably with a mechanically ruled varied-line-spacing (VLS) grating. The grating grooves recorded with the designed aspheric wave-front recording system were processed to form a laminar groove profile by means of reactive ion etching. Measurements done with synchrotron radiation and a laboratory X-ray source are reported for this laminar-type grating and a commercial grating replicated from a mechanically ruled VLS grating that was specifically designed and fabricated for the standard soft X-ray flat-field spectrograph. The laminar-type holographic grating is found to have an absolute first-order efficiency of approximately 10% for wavelengths of approximately 4.5-12 nm. It is also shown that the holographic grating is effective in suppressing the higher orders and stray-light level for soft X-ray of 4.36 nm (C-K) and has a comparable spectral resolution to the replica VLS grating.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-170
Number of pages8
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2000 Nov 8


  • Diffraction grating
  • Spectrometer
  • diffraction efficiency
  • flat-field spectrograph
  • holographic grating
  • soft X-ray

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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