Validation and reliability of a Japanese version of the Simple Shoulder Test: a cross-sectional study

Takuya Sekiguchi, Yoshihiro Hagiwara, Akira Ando, Kenji Kanazawa, Kazuaki Suzuki, Masashi Koide, Yutaka Yabe, Satsuki Onoda, Eiji Itoi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The Simple Shoulder Test (SST) is a widely used patient-reported outcome assessment. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a Japanese version of the SST (SST-Jp). Methods: A two-stage observational study was conducted to validate the cross-cultural adaptation of the SST. A total of 100 patients with shoulder disorders completed the SST-Jp; the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand assessment; and the Medical Outcomes Short-Form 36 (SF-36) at an initial visit. Thirty-four of the patients repeated the SST-Jp one week after the first examination. The test-retest reliability was quantified using the interclass correlation coefficient, and Cronbach's alpha (α) was calculated to assess internal consistency. Construct validity was assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: The internal consistency of the SST-Jp was very high (α = 0.826). The interclass correlation coefficient of the SST-Jp was also high (0.859). There was a strong, positive correlation between the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand and the SST-Jp (r = 0.717, P <.001). The SST-Jp was significantly correlated with most of the SF-36 subscales. The correlations of the SST-Jp with physical subscales of the SF-36 were stronger than those with the other subscales. Conclusions: The SST-Jp was found to be a valid and reliable measurement for shoulder joint pain and function assessment among the Japanese population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)334-337
Number of pages4
JournalJSES International
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Mar


  • Basic Science Study
  • Japan
  • Shoulder
  • Simple Shoulder Test
  • Validation of Outcome Instruments
  • cross-cultural comparison
  • patient-reported outcome measures
  • validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Surgery


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