Validation and reliability of a Japanese version of the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index: A cross-sectional study

Takuya Sekiguchi, Yoshihiro Hagiwara, Akira Ando, Kenji Kanazawa, Kazuaki Suzuki, Masashi Koide, Yutaka Yabe, Satsuki Onoda, Eiji Itoi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) is a simple disease specific questionnaire that is used to evaluate the impact of shoulder disorders. The purpose of this study was to translate the SPADI into Japanese (SPADI-Jp) and evaluate its reliability and validity in Japanese patients with shoulder disorders. Methods: Cross-cultural adaptation of the SPADI was performed according to international guidelines. A total of 100 patients with shoulder disorders participated in this study. Each participant was asked to finish the SPADI-Jp, Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), and the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) at the initial visit. Thirty-four patients repeated the SPADI-Jp to assess the test–retest reliability. The test–retest reliability was quantified using the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), while Cronbach's alpha was calculated to assess the internal consistency. The construct validity was assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Results: Internal consistency in the SPADI-Jp was very high (0.969), as measured by the Cronbach's alpha. The ICC of the SPADI-Jp was 0.930. There was a strong, positive correlation between the DASH and the SPADI-Jp (r = 0.837, p < 0.001). The SPADI-Jp was significantly correlated with most of the SF-36 subscales. The correlations of the SPADI-Jp with physical subscales of the SF-36 were stronger than those with the other subscales. Conclusions: We demonstrated that the SPADI-Jp is a reliable and valid self-assessment tool. Because cross-cultural adaptation, validation, and reliability of the disease-specific questionnaire for shoulder pain and disability have not been evaluated in Japan, the SPADI-Jp can be useful for evaluating such patients in the Japanese population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)595-598
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Science
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jul

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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