Soft-X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) based on transmission electron microscopy can give us information of energy state of valence electrons (bonding electrons) from small specimen areas examined by microscopy, electron diffraction, and elemental analysis. The information of valence electrons cannot be directly obtained by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) widely used nowadays. In this chapter, developments of SXES instruments for conventional transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) and those results applied to materials to obtain information of valence electrons are described.
|Title of host publication||Transmission Electron Microscopy Characterization of Nanomaterials|
|Publisher||Springer Berlin Heidelberg|
|Number of pages||45|
|Publication status||Published - 2014 Jan 1|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)