Two techniques using subcritical and supercritical water are introduced herein: supercritical hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles and hydrothermal processing of waste and biomass. Recent progress of supercritical hydrothermal synthesis method is reviewed particularly for oxidation catalysts. Then hydrothermal treatment methods for biomass and waste are summarized from the viewpoint of phase behavior, homogeneous reaction, and reaction with catalysts. Fractionation of valuable materials through reforming of biomass and waste using the characteristic properties of the hydrothermal reaction field is emphasized. Cellulose and lignin, the major components of woody materials, and heavy oil as a representative waste material have been studied intensively for treatment under hydrothermal conditions. Process design aspects are discussed to provide a future scope of related technologies. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
- Cubic CeO nanocatalysts
- Heavy oil
- Supercritical hydrothermal synthesis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Waste Management and Disposal