Background: The appropriate target ranges of heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) for the management of chronic heart failure (CHF) patients remain to be elucidated in a large-scale cohort study. Methods and Results: We examined 3,029 consecutive CHF patients with sinus rhythm (SR) (mean age, 67.9 years) registered in the Chronic Heart Failure Analysis and Registry in the Tohoku District-2 Study (CHART-2; NCT00418041). There were 357 deaths (11.8%) during the median follow-up of 3.1 years. We first performed the classification and regression tree analysis for mortality, identifying SBP <89 mmHg, HR >70 beats/min and SBP <115 mmHg as the primary, secondary and tertiary discriminators, respectively. According to these, we divided the patients into low- (n=1,131), middle- (n=1,624) and high-risk (n=274) groups with mortality risk <10%, 10-20% and >20%, respectively. The low-risk group was characterized by SBP >115 mmHg and HR <70 beats/min and the high-risk group by SBP <89 mmHg regardless of HR values or SBP 89-115 mmHg and HR >76 beats/min. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the hazard ratio of all-cause death for low-, middle- and high-risk groups was 1.00 (reference), 1.48 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.99, P=0.009) and 2.44 (95% CI 1.66-3.58, P<0.001), respectively. Subgroup analysis revealed that age ≥70 years, diabetes, or reduced left ventricular function had higher hazard ratios in the high-risk group. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the usefulness of combined risk stratification of HR and SBP in CHF patients with SR.
- Chronic heart failure
- Heart rate
- Systolic blood pressure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine