Background: Wrapping is thought to prevent pancreatic fistula and postoperative hemorrhage for pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), and we analyzed whether omentum/falciform ligament wrapping decreases postoperative complications after PD. Methods: This is a retrospective study of wrapping using the omentum/falciform ligament in patients that underwent PD between January 2006 and June 2008 in 139 institutions that were members of the Japanese Society of Pancreatic Surgery. Results: Ninety-one institutions responded to the questionnaires, and data were accumulated from 3,288 patients. The data from 2,597 patients were acceptable for analysis; 918 (35.3%) patients underwent wrapping and 1,679 patients did not. A pancreatic fistula occurred in 623 patients (37.3%) in the nonwrapping group, in comparison to 393 patients (42.8%) in the wrapping group (P =.006). The incidence of a grade B/C pancreatic fistula was lower in the nonwrapping group than the wrapping group (16.7% vs 21.5%; P =.002). An intra-abdominal hemorrhage occurred in 54 patients (3.2%) in the nonwrapping group, which was similar to the incidence in the wrapping group (32 patients; 3.5%). The mortality was 1.3% and 1.0% in nonwrapping and wrapping groups, respectively. A multivariate analysis revealed 7 independent risk factors for pancreatic fistula; male, hypoalbuminemia, soft pancreas, long operation time, extended resection, pylorus preservation, and omentum wrapping. There were 4 independent risk factors for early intra-abdominal hemorrhage and 2 independent risk factors for late intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Conclusion: This retrospective study revealed that omentum wrapping did not decrease the incidence of pancreatic fistula. An additional validation study is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of wrapping for PD.
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