BACKGROUND: Inflammation, intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation, oxidative stress, and carbonyl stress have been postulated to play a fundamental role in controlling blood pressure. However, little is known about the association among renal RAS activation, carbonyl stress, and blood pressure elevation. METHODS: We evaluated the relationship between blood pressure elevation and either renal RAS activity or carbonyl stress in the general population (N = 355) in Japan. To minimize the effect of antihypertensive drug therapy, we divided participants into 3 groups (normotensive, hypertensive-with-non-medication, and hypertensive-with-medication). Intrarenal RAS activity and carbonyl stress were indicated by the urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) and carbonyl compound excretion levels, respectively. RESULTS: The urinary AGT and carbonyl compound excretion levels were significantly associated with blood pressure. Using a stepwise multiple regression analysis, we found that the urinary AGT excretion levels were strongly associated with blood pressure elevation, compared with inflammation, oxidative stress, and carbonyl stress markers, in all groups. Urinary carbonyl compound excretion was significantly associated with blood pressure in only the hypertensive-without-medication group. Furthermore, blood pressure was significantly increased in these participants, and both the urinary AGT and carbonyl compound levels were high. The urinary AGT excretion levels were strongly associated with elevated blood pressure in normotensive people, and inappropriate renal RAS activity and carbonyl stress independently contributed to the development of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that RAS activation, particularly renal RAS activation exert a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in the general population.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine