TY - JOUR

T1 - Universal relation for supernova gravitational waves

AU - Sotani, Hajime

AU - Takiwaki, Tomoya

AU - Togashi, Hajime

N1 - Funding Information:
This work is supported in part by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI Grants No. JP17H06357, No. JP17H06364, No. JP18H01212, No. JP19KK0354, No. JP20H04753, and No. JP21H01088 and by the Pioneering Program of RIKEN for Evolution of Matter in the Universe (r-EMU). This research has also been supported by MEXT through “Program for Promoting Researches on the Supercomputer Fugaku” (Toward a Unified View of the Universe: From Large Scale Structures to Planets, JPMXP1020200109) and JICFuS, the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) program for the cross-disciplinary study (Grants No. 01321802 and No. 01311904) on Turbulence, Transport, and Heating Dynamics in Laboratory and Solar/Astrophysical Plasmas: “SoLaBo-X.” Numerical computations were, in part, carried out on Cray XC50, a PC cluster and analysis server at Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.
Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 American Physical Society.

PY - 2021/12/15

Y1 - 2021/12/15

N2 - Using the numerical simulation data for two-dimensional core-collapse supernova, we examine the protoneutron star (PNS) asteroseismology with the relativistic Cowling approximation. As shown in the previous study, e.g., [22H. Sotani and T. Takiwaki, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 498, 3503 (2020).MNRAA40035-871110.1093/mnras/staa2597], the gravitational wave signals appearing in the numerical simulation can be well identified with the gravity (fundamental) oscillation in the early (later) phase before (after) the avoided crossing between the gravity and fundamental oscillations. On the other hand, the time evolution of supernova gravitational waves strongly depends on the PNS models, such as the progenitor mass and the equation of state for dense matter. Nevertheless, we find that the fundamental and gravity mode frequencies according to the gravitational wave signals appearing in the numerical simulations can be expressed as a function of the protoneutron star average density independently of the PNS models. Using the average density, we derive the empirical formula for supernova gravitational wave frequency. In addition, we confirm that the dependence of the PNS surface density on the PNS average density is almost independent of the PNS models, and we also discuss how the different treatment of the nonuniform matter in the equation of state affects the observables.

AB - Using the numerical simulation data for two-dimensional core-collapse supernova, we examine the protoneutron star (PNS) asteroseismology with the relativistic Cowling approximation. As shown in the previous study, e.g., [22H. Sotani and T. Takiwaki, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 498, 3503 (2020).MNRAA40035-871110.1093/mnras/staa2597], the gravitational wave signals appearing in the numerical simulation can be well identified with the gravity (fundamental) oscillation in the early (later) phase before (after) the avoided crossing between the gravity and fundamental oscillations. On the other hand, the time evolution of supernova gravitational waves strongly depends on the PNS models, such as the progenitor mass and the equation of state for dense matter. Nevertheless, we find that the fundamental and gravity mode frequencies according to the gravitational wave signals appearing in the numerical simulations can be expressed as a function of the protoneutron star average density independently of the PNS models. Using the average density, we derive the empirical formula for supernova gravitational wave frequency. In addition, we confirm that the dependence of the PNS surface density on the PNS average density is almost independent of the PNS models, and we also discuss how the different treatment of the nonuniform matter in the equation of state affects the observables.

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U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevD.104.123009

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevD.104.123009

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85120608724

SN - 2470-0010

VL - 104

JO - Physical Review D

JF - Physical Review D

IS - 12

M1 - 123009

ER -