Unexpected infant death due to hypoplastic left heart syndrome: A case report

Yoshie Hayashizaki, Kiyotaka Usui, Takuya Moriya, Masaki Hashiyada, Akihito Usui, Yoshiyuki Hosokai, Yusuke Kawasumi, Haruo Saito, Masato Funayama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A female infant was found unresponsive at home. The mother alleged that she delivered the baby at home 13. days prior to the death. The mother did not have any prenatal examinations during the pregnancy and the infant was not examined by a doctor until death. The autopsy revealed that the cause of death was hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and the infant's chest showed bilateral breast enlargement. Forensic pathologists may encounter very rare pathological findings with unexpected infant deaths. Some, like HLHS, are serious congenital heart defects related to the cause of death, and others are unique phenomena unrelated to the cause of death such as breast swelling and discharge called " witch's milk." In this case, we observed both findings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)293-297
Number of pages5
JournalLegal Medicine
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Nov


  • Breast swelling
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
  • Unexpected infant death
  • Witch's milk

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Issues, ethics and legal aspects


Dive into the research topics of 'Unexpected infant death due to hypoplastic left heart syndrome: A case report'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this