Undersize solute element effects on defect structure development in copper under electron irradiation

Y. Satoh, T. Yoshiie, S. Arai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


We conducted systematic experiments of defect structure development in Cu base binary alloys under 1000 kV electron irradiation at temperatures higher than 300 K, using in situ observations with high voltage electron microscopy. This report describes the effects of undersize elements: Co (–3.78%), Ni (–8.45%) and Be (–26.45%). The volume size factors are given in parentheses. The amounts of the respective elements were 2, 0.3, 0.05 at.%, or less. In Cu–Ni and Cu–Co and in the reference Cu, temperature dependence of the number density of interstitial-type dislocation loops had a down peak (i.e. loops hardly formed) at approximately 373 K, attributed to unexpected impurity atoms. Above the down-peak temperature, the addition of Co or Ni increased the loop number density through continuous nucleation of loops, extended the loop formation to higher temperatures, and decreased the apparent activation energy of loop growth rate. The addition of Be for 0.3 at.% or more delayed loop formation after formation of stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) around 300 K. The apparent mobility of self-interstitial atoms is expected to be smaller than that of vacancies because of strong binding with Be. Loop formation at temperatures higher than 373 K was enhanced by Be for 0.3 or 2 at.%, although it was suppressed greatly for 0.05 at.% or less. All undersize atoms increased the stability of SFTs under irradiation. Mechanisms of those effects were discussed and were briefly compared with earlier results found for oversize elements in Cu.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)646-672
Number of pages27
JournalPhilosophical Magazine
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Mar 14


  • Electron irradiation
  • in-situ electron microscopy
  • point defects
  • precipitation
  • radiation damage
  • segregation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics


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