The scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis, was screened for new saxitoxin analogues to study the metabolism of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), and this resulted in the discovery of two new analogues: M5-hemiaminal (HA) and M6-HA. M5-HA was isolated and its structure was determined by using NMR spectroscopy. It contains hydrogen at C-4 with opposite stereochemistry to that in saxitoxin, and a hemiaminal was formed between 9-NH2 and the hydrated ketone at C-12 in α-orientation. This is the first reported structural feature in a natural saxitoxin analogue, whereas the same ring system has previously been reported in a synthetic saxitoxin analogue, FD-saxitoxin. Acid hydrolysis of the carbamoyl N-sulfate in M5-HA produced M6-HA which was also identified in P. yessoensis by using LC-MSMS. M5-HA was not synthetically produced from M1 (11-hydroxy gonyautoxin-5) and M3 (11,11-dihydroxy gonyautoxin-5) through incubation in aqueous buffers. Furthermore, PSTs in the hepatopancreas of P. yessoensis, cultured in a bay located in northeastern Japan, were chronologically analyzed in 2018. The highest concentrations of M1/M3/M5-HA were observed two weeks after C-toxins had reached their highest concentrations, which provides evidence that M1/M3/M5-HA are metabolites of C-toxins. The voltage-gated sodium channel blockage activity of M6-HA was not detected at the concentration of 140 nM by using the Neuro-2A veratridine/ouabain assay.
- Paralytic shellfish toxins
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis