Two effects of GATA2 enhancer repositioning by 3q chromosomal rearrangements

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2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Chromosomal inversion and translocation between 3q21 and 3q26 [inv (3)(q21.3q26.2) and t(3;3)(q21.3;q26.2), respectively] give rise to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), which have poor prognoses. The chromosomal rearrangements reposition a GATA2 distal hematopoietic enhancer from the original 3q21 locus to the EVI1 (also known as MECOM) locus on 3q26. Therefore, the GATA2 enhancer from one of two GATA2 alleles drives EVI1 gene expression in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, which promotes the accumulation of abnormal progenitors and induces leukemogenesis. On the other hand, one allele of the GATA2 gene loses its enhancer, which results in reduced GATA2 expression. The GATA2 gene encodes a transcription factor critical for the generation and maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. GATA2 haploinsufficiency has been known to cause immunodeficiency and myeloid leukemia. Notably, reduced GATA2 expression suppresses the differentiation but promotes the proliferation of EVI1-expressing leukemic cells, which accelerates EVI1-driven leukemogenesis. A series of studies have shown that the GATA2 enhancer repositioning caused by the chromosomal rearrangements between 3q21 and 3q26 provokes misexpression of both the EVI1 and GATA2 genes and that these two effects coordinately elicit high-risk leukemia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)159-169
Number of pages11
JournalIUBMB Life
Volume72
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jan 1

Keywords

  • 3q
  • EVI1
  • GATA2
  • chromosomal translocation
  • enhancer repositioning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology

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