Background-There is little known about whether the clinical and pathological characteristics and incidence of cardiac rupture (CR) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have changed over the years. Methods and Results-The incidence and clinical characteristics of CR were investigated in patients with AMI, who were divided into 3 cohorts: 1977-1989, 1990-2000, and 2001-2011. Of a total of 5699 patients, 144 were diagnosed with CR and 45 survived. Over the years, the incidence of CR decreased (1977-1989, 3.3%; 1990-2000, 2.8%; 2001-2011, 1.7%; P=0.002) in association with the widespread adoption of reperfusion therapy. The mortality rate of CR decreased (1977-1989, 90%; 1990-2000, 56%; 2001-2011, 50%; P=0.002) in association with an increase in the rate of emergent surgery. In multivariable analysis, first myocardial infarction, anterior infarct, female sex, hypertension, and age >70 years were significant risk factors for CR, whereas impact of hypertension on CR was weaker from 2001 to 2011. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) was a significant protective factor against CR. In 64 autopsy cases with CR, myocardial hemorrhage occurred more frequently in those who underwent PPCI or fibrinolysis than those who did not receive reperfusion therapy (no reperfusion therapy, 18.0%; fibrinolysis, 71.4%; PPCI, 83.3%; P=0.001). Conclusions-With the development of medical treatment, the incidence and mortality rate of CR have decreased. However, first myocardial infarction, anterior infarct, female sex, and old age remain important risk factors for CR. Adjunctive cardioprotection against reperfusion-induced myocardial hemorrhage is emerging in the current PPCI era.
- Heart rupture
- Myocardial infarction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine