Treatment outcomes of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease in lung transplant recipients

Takashi Hirama, Lianne G. Singer, Sarah K. Brode, Theodore K. Marras, Shahid Husain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Lung transplant (LTX) recipients are at risk miscellaneous infections, among whom the clinical significance of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is increasingly recognized. Despite anti-mycobacterial therapy becoming standardized worldwide, there is a lack of data on treatment outcomes in LTX recipients who develop NTM-pulmonary disease (PD). We aimed to review the treatment outcomes of NTM-PD among LTX recipients in our center. Methods: Patients who underwent LTX from January 2013 to December 2014 were consecutively enrolled in the retrospective cohort, with follow-up of data retrieved to December 2017. Clinical and radiological improvement and culture conversion after anti-mycobacterial therapy were reviewed in those who developed post-transplant NTM-PD. Results: Sixteen of 230 LTX recipients developed post-transplant NTM-PD. Ten of 16 patients with post-transplant NTM-PD were treated with macrolide-containing anti-mycobacterial therapy, leading to clinical improvement in 5/10 (50%), radiological improvement in 5/10 (50%) and culture conversion in 6/10 (60%) patients. Conclusion: Anti-mycobacterial therapy may relieve pulmonary symptoms and reduce microbial load among individuals with post-transplant NTM-PD.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13679
JournalTransplant Infectious Disease
Volume23
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Aug

Keywords

  • Mycobacterium avium (MAC)
  • lung transplant (LTX)
  • nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)
  • respiratory infection
  • treatment outcome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Transplantation

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