The effects of operation conditions on reaction rate in the enzymatic oxidative treatment of nonylphenol with laccase in a rotating reactor were studied. Sea sand that adsorbed nonylphenol was used as a polluted soil model. Nonylphenol concentration decreased with laccase treatment five times faster at 40°C than at 10°C and the apparent activation energy of the enzyme reaction was 39 kJ mol-1, which was in the range of the values reported for similar laccase reactions. Reaction rate increased when the angle of the axis of the rotating reactor from the vertical line increased and when the speed of revolution was increased to 10 rpm at different volumes of the enzyme solution. Thus, mixing is important for the oxidation of nonylphenol with laccase. The nonylphenol released from the sand into the enzyme solution in the initial stage of the treatment was easily oxidized. However, the nonylphenol adsorbed on the sand reacted slowly. Reaction rate increased nearly proportional to the square root of enzyme concentration, which suggests that the nonylphenol radical reacted with unoxidized nonylphenol (nonenzymatic propagation) during the enzymatic oxidative treatment. The dependence of reaction rate on the nonylphenol concentration was similar to the Michaelis-Menten type. The residual estrogenic activity of the treated sand was measured by medaka vitellogenin assay. The estrogenic activity decreased to 1/6-1/90 after 24 h of the treatment.
- Endocrine-disrupting chemicals
- Estrogenic activity
- Vitellogenin assay
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology