Transition of carbon binding states on Si(1 0 0) depending on substrate temperature and its effect on Ge growth

Yuhki Itoh, Shinji Hatakeyama, Tomoyuki Kawashima, Katsuyoshi Washio

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6 Citations (Scopus)


Effect of binding states of carbon(C) with Si substrate on Ge growth was studied. The samples were prepared by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy system with electron beam gun for C sublimation and K-cell for Ge evaporation. The C binding states to Si(1 0 0) surface evaluated by XPS measurement revealed a transition of the fraction of C-C and Si-C bonds depending on carbon deposition temperature (TC). The fraction of C-C bonds was major below T C = 600 °C and was almost equal to that of Si-C bonds at T C = 800-1000 °C. Surface roughening by the c(4 × 4) reconstruction induced by a large amount of Si-C bonds was observed at T C = 1000 °C. Ge equivalent to 10-nm thick was deposited on C/Si substrate at 550 °C. Amorphous Ge layers were grown for TC = 200-800 °C because Ge adatoms nucleated on the C-C structure dominantly. Structural transition from 2-D films to dome-shaped 3-D dots occurred for T C = 1000 °C due to the increase of Ge diffusion length by the Si-C structure. Concerning the dependence of C coverage, the crystallinity of Ge film deteriorated with increasing C coverage for TC = 200 °C due to the increase of C-C structure which enhances the formation of amorphous Ge. On the other hand, crystallinity of Ge dots were improved with C coverage and were saturated over 0.2 ML for TC = 1000 °C. This reflects the enlargement of dots due to C-suppressed Ge growth induced by Si-C bonds at the surface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14-17
Number of pages4
JournalMicroelectronic Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Aug 1


  • Binding state
  • Carbon
  • Ge
  • Mediated growth
  • Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)
  • Si

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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