Dipole antennas in boreholes are used for tomographic imaging or electromagnetic well logging. A cylindrically layered structure within the borehole will change the radiation characteristics of a dipole antenna. Our objective is to understand the effects of the borehole structure upon the impedance, waveform distortion, and directivity patterns of a dipole antenna. We use a finite-difference, time-domain (FDTD) technique to simulate borehole-antenna radiation, while the geometry of both the dipole and the borehole are modeled with a subgrid technique. The simulated input impedances are verified by experimental results. Both the water-filled and the air-filled boreholes distort the radiated wavefronts, waveforms, and resonant frequencies relative to the same characteristics of a dipole in homogeneous media. A water-filled borehole lowers the first resonant frequency, while an air-filled borehole raises it. At high frequencies, the antenna in the water-filled borehole exhibits radiation side lobes. The borehole effects for water- and air-filled boreholes differ and should not be neglected for borehole antenna design.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geochemistry and Petrology