Transcription suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 gene expression by tumor necrosis factor α via an inhibition of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ during the early stage of adipocyte differentiation

Masataka Kudo, Akira Sugawara, Akira Uruno, Kazuhisa Takeuchi, Sadayoshi Ito

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

TNFα is known to inhibit adipocyte differentiation and induce insulin resistance. Moreover, TNFα is known to down-regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ2, an adipocyte-specific nuclear receptor of insulin-sensitizer thiazolidinediones. To clarify molecular mechanisms of TNFα-mediated PPARγ2 down-regulation, we here examined the effect of TNFα on transcription regulation of PPARγ2 gene expression during the early stage of adipocyte differentiation. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes (2 d after 100% confluent) were incubated in a differentiation mixture (dexamethasone, insulin, 3-isobutyl-1-methlxanthine), with or without 50 ng/ml TNFα, for 24 h. TNFα significantly decreased PPARγ2 expression both at mRNA and protein levels (to ∼40%), as well as aP2 mRNA expression. The mouse PPARγ2 gene promoter region (2.2-kb) was isolated and was used for luciferase reporter assays by transient transfection. TNFα significantly suppressed PPARγ2 gene transcription (to ∼50%), and deletion analyses demonstrated that the suppression was mediated via CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) binding elements at the -320/-340 region of the promoter. Moreover, TNFα significantly decreased expression of C/EBPδ mRNA and protein levels (to ∼40%). EMSA, using 3T3-L1 cells nuclear extracts with the -320/-340 region as a probe, demonstrated the binding of C/EBPδ to the element, which was significantly decreased by TNFα treatment. Overexpression of CEBP/δ prevented the TNFα-mediated suppression of PPARγ2 transactivation. Taken together, TNFα suppresses PPARγ2 gene transcription by the inhibition of C/EBPδ expression and its DNA binding during the early stage of adipocyte differentiation, which may contribute to the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, as well as the induction of insulin resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4948-4956
Number of pages9
JournalEndocrinology
Volume145
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Nov

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology

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