Tracking dynamics of magma migration in open-conduit systems

Sébastien Valade, Giorgio Lacanna, Diego Coppola, Marco Laiolo, Marco Pistolesi, Dario Delle Donne, Riccardo Genco, Emanuele Marchetti, Giacomo Ulivieri, Carmine Allocca, Corrado Cigolini, Takeshi Nishimura, Pasquale Poggi, Maurizio Ripepe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Open-conduit volcanic systems are typically characterized by unsealed volcanic conduits feeding permanent or quasi-permanent volcanic activity. This persistent activity limits our ability to read changes in the monitored parameters, making the assessment of possible eruptive crises more difficult. We show how an integrated approach to monitoring can solve this problem, opening a new way to data interpretation. The increasing rate of explosive transients, tremor amplitude, thermal emissions of ejected tephra, and rise of the very-long-period (VLP) seismic source towards the surface are interpreted as indicating an upward migration of the magma column in response to an increased magma input rate. During the 2014 flank eruption of Stromboli, this magma input preceded the effusive eruption by several months. When the new lateral effusive vent opened on the Sciara del Fuoco slope, the effusion was accompanied by a large ground deflation, a deepening of the VLP seismic source, and the cessation of summit explosive activity. Such observations suggest the drainage of a superficial magma reservoir confined between the crater terrace and the effusive vent. We show how this model successfully reproduces the measured rate of effusion, the observed rate of ground deflation, and the deepening of the VLP seismic source. This study also demonstrates the ability of the geophysical network to detect superficial magma recharge within an open-conduit system and to track magma drainage during the effusive crisis, with a great impact on hazard assessment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number78
JournalBulletin of Volcanology
Volume78
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Nov 1

Keywords

  • Conduit processes
  • Effusive eruption
  • Geophysical monitoring
  • Stromboli volcano

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geochemistry and Petrology

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    Valade, S., Lacanna, G., Coppola, D., Laiolo, M., Pistolesi, M., Donne, D. D., Genco, R., Marchetti, E., Ulivieri, G., Allocca, C., Cigolini, C., Nishimura, T., Poggi, P., & Ripepe, M. (2016). Tracking dynamics of magma migration in open-conduit systems. Bulletin of Volcanology, 78(11), [78]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-016-1072-x