Titanium production through electrolysis of titanium oxycarbide consumable anode-the USTB process

Hongmin Zhu, Shuqiang Jiao, Jiusan Xiao, Jun Zhu

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter describes the status of the titanium extraction process through the electrolysis of titanium oxycarbide, the USTB process. The fundamental researches on this process have been introduced in terms of, (1) crystalline structure of titanium oxycarbide and titanium oxycarbonitride, (2) thermodynamic properties and preparation of titanium oxycarbide from TiO2 by carbon thermal reduction, (3) electrochemical dissolution of the consumable anode, (4) electrochemical deposition on the cathode. The practices status of USTB process is also described.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationExtractive Metallurgy of Titanium
Subtitle of host publicationConventional and Recent Advances in Extraction and Production of Titanium Metal
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9780128172001
ISBN (Print)9780128172018
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Nov 8


  • Anodic gas
  • Carbon thermal reduction
  • Cathodic deposition
  • Consumable anode
  • Crystal structure
  • Electrochemical dissolution
  • Electrolysis
  • Raw material
  • Scaling up
  • TiCxO1-x
  • Titanium oxycarbide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)


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