Titanium alloy are recently getting much attention for medical and dental applications because of their excellent specific strength, corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, etc. Among the titanium alloys, β type titanium alloys composed of non-toxic and non-allergic elements like Nb, Ta, Zr, etc. are getting much attention because of their low Young's modulus and excellent workability. As well as low Young's modulus, functional properties like super elastic property, shape memory property, etc., which are suitable for stents, catheters, dental wires, etc. are energetically investigated. β type titanium alloys composed of non-toxic and non-allergic elements have also high potential for dental applications. Developments of new titanium alloys and investment materials for dental precision castings are main topics in dental applications. Recent research and development of titanium alloys for medical and dental applications will be described with focusing on the newly developed β type titanium alloy, Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr, composed of non-toxic and non-allergic elements with low Young's modulus.