Time-spread echo method for digital audio watermarking using PN sequences

Byeong Seob Ko, Ryouichi Nishimura, Yôiti Suzuki

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)


Conventional watermarking techniques based on echo hiding provide many benefits, but with several weak points, for example, a lenient decoding process, weakness against multiple encoding attack, etc. In this paper, to improve the weak points of conventional echo hiding, we propose a time-spread echo as an alternative to the conventional echo in the echo hiding. Spreading an echo is performed in the impulse response domain using PN sequences. We also evaluate the characteristics of the proposed method as a function of two parameters: gain and length of PN sequences used in spreading an echo. The proposed method is expected to provide more natural and colorless sounds as well as better imperceptibility of distortion as compared with conventional echo hiding.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)II/2001-II/2004
JournalICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings
Publication statusPublished - 2002
Event2002 IEEE International Conference on Acoustic, Speech and Signal Processing - Orlando, FL, United States
Duration: 2002 May 132002 May 17

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Signal Processing
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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