Physics of cylindrical base flows ranging from subsonic to supersonic speeds at zero angle of attack are computationally investigated. Time-series and time-averaged investigations of base flows show distinctive characteristics at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic regimes. Normalized time-averaged base pressure decreases proportionally with respect to increasing freestream dynamic pressure in the subsonic regime M∞ < 0.8. The base pressure begins to fall rapidly in the transonic regime and then settles down and decreases gradually toward an asymptotic value at M∞ > 1.5. Normalized base pressure fluctuations sharply increase at transonic speeds, whereas they decrease with increasing freestream Mach number at subsonic and supersonic speeds. Appearance of unsteady local shock waves change the characteristics of base pressure distinctively at the transonic speeds. Spectra of the base pressure show one clear peak at subsonic speeds (related to the shear layer dynamics), two clear peaks at transonic speeds (related to the shear layer dynamics and its subharmonic), and three major peaks at supersonic speeds (related to the shear layer dynamics, its subharmonic, and an additional mechanism). Instability of the free shear layers has dominant influence on the overall base flowfield over a wide range of Mach numbers ranging from subsonic to supersonic speeds. However, at supersonic speeds, an additional mechanism of instability within the recirculating region is possibly at work and has dominant influence on the flowfield. The dominant mechanisms significantly cause the strong Mach number dependence of the high-pressure region which is strongly related to the base pressure. The spectrum analysis suggests that the substantial base pressure fluctuations are caused by the pulsing of the flow inside the recirculating region.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Aerospace Engineering